Enforcement Action

SEC Announces Cyber Enforcement Initiative: Distributed Ledger Technology, Initial Coin Offerings Under the Microscope

On September 25, 2017, the Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) announced the launch of its new Cyber Unit. Drawing on the existing cyber experience of the SEC’s Enforcement Division, and including personnel from around the country, the Cyber Unit will target cyber-related misconduct in the following areas identified by the…

Read More

CFTC and the Bitcoin Give and Take

Recently, the U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (“CFTC”) granted LedgerX, LLC, registration as a derivatives clearing organization (“DCO”) under the Commodity Exchange Act, and with it, the right to clear fully collateralized digital currency swaps, subject to applicable law.  It became the “first federally regulated Bitcoin options exchange and clearinghouse to list…

Read More

State Regulation of Distributed Ledger Technology

  While the federal government has taken a variety of different positions in regulating distributed ledger technology, there are several important trends that are emerging in states’ regulation of such technology:   1) States are increasingly scrutinizing digital currencies. States are moving forward with regulating digital currencies, especially with respect…

Read More

CFTC Fines Bitfinex For Failing To Register and Operating An Illegal Exchange

The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC), showing continued regulatory interest in digital currency companies, issued an Order and settled charges against Hong Kong-based digital currency exchange Bitfinex. The CFTC found that Bitfinex was offering illegal off-exchange financed retail commodity transactions in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies, and failed to register…

Read More

OFAC Announces Settlement with PayPal for Apparent Sanctions Violations

On March 25, 2015, the Department of the Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Controls (OFAC) announced a settlement with electronic funds transfer giant PayPal, Inc. At issue were almost 500 transactions totaling approximately $44,000 in violation of various U.S. sanctions programs, including for Iran, Cuba, Sudan, proliferation of weapons of…

Read More

12